New evidence is emerging for how important it is for pregnant women to eat good, nutritious food. Expecting mothers who eat vegetables every day seem to have children who are less likely to develop type 1 diabetes, is revealed in a new study from the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
The study was performed in collaboration with Linköping University, which is conducting a population study called ABIS (All Babies in Southeast Sweden). The results have been published in the journal Pediatric Diabetes.
“This is the first study to show a link between vegetable intake during pregnancy and the risk of the child subsequently developing type 1 diabetes, but more studies of various kinds will be needed before we can say anything definitive,” says researcher and clinical nutritionist Hilde Brekke from the Sahlgrenska Academy.
Blood samples from almost 6,000 five year-olds were analyzed in the study. In type 1 diabetes, certain cells in the pancreas gradually get worse at producing insulin, leading to insulin deficiency. Children at risk of developing type 1 diabetes have antibodies in their blood which attack these insulin-producing cells.
Of the 6,000 children tested, three per cent had either elevated levels of these antibodies or fully developed type 1 diabetes at the age of five. These risk markers were up to twice as common in children whose mothers rarely ate vegetables during pregnancy. The risk was lowest among children whose mothers stated that they ate vegetables every day.
“We cannot say with certainty on the basis of this study that it’s the vegetables themselves that have this protective effect, but other factors related to vegetable intake, such as the mother’s standard of education, do not seem to explain the link,” says Brekke. “Nor can this protection be explained by other measured dietary factors or other known risk factors.”.
The term “Vegetables “in this study included all vegetables except for root vegetables.
Type 1 Diabetes
Around 50,000 Swedes have type 1 diabetes, a chronic disease which normally emerges before the age of 35. It is not yet known what causes type 1 diabetes, but some of the factors believed to play a role are:
- various immunological mechanisms,
- environmental toxins and
- genetic variations.
Type 1 diabetes is found throughout the world but is most common in Finland and Sweden.
CORVALLIS, Ore. – A laboratory study has shown for the first time that coenzyme Q10 offsets the cellular changes that are linked to a side-effect of some statin drugs – an increased risk of adult-onset diabetes.
Statins are some of the most widely prescribed drugs in the world, able to reduce LDL, or “bad” cholesterol levels, and the risk of heart attacks or other cardiovascular events. However, their role in raising the risk of diabetes has only been observed and studied in recent years.
The possibility of thousands of statin-induced diabetics is a growing concern, which led last year to new labeling and warnings by the Food and Drug Administration about the drugs, especially when taken at higher dosage levels.
The findings of the new research were published as a rapid communication in Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, and offer another clue to a possible causative mechanism of this problem.
Pharmacy researchers at Oregon State University who authored the study said the findings were made only in laboratory analysis of cells, and more work needs to be done with animal and ultimately human studies before recommending the use of coenzyme Q10 to help address this concern.
“A number of large, randomized clinical trials have now shown that use of statins can increase the risk of developing type-2 diabetes by about 9 percent,” said Matthew K. Ito, an OSU professor of pharmacy and president-elect of the National Lipid Association.
“This is fairly serious, especially if you are in the large group of patients who have not yet had a cardiovascular event, but just take statin drugs to lower your risks of heart disease,” Ito said.
A suspect in this issue has been altered levels of a protein called GLUT4, which is part of the cellular response mechanism, along with insulin, that helps to control blood sugar levels. A reduced expression of GLUT4 contributes to insulin resistance and the onset of type-2 diabetes, and can be caused by the use of some statin drugs.
The statins that reduce cholesterol production also reduce levels of coenzyme Q10, research has shown. Coenzyme Q10 is needed in cells to help create energy and perform other important functions. And this study showed in laboratory analysis that if coenzyme Q10 is supplemented to cells, it prevents the reduction in GLUT4 induced by the statins.
Not all statin drugs, however, appear to cause a reduction in GLUT4.
The problems were found with one statin, simvastatin, that is “lipophilic,” which means it can more easily move through the cell membrane. Some of the most commonly used statins are lipophilic, including simvastatin, atorvastatin, and lovastatin. All of these statins are now available as generic drugs, and high dosage levels have been most often linked with the increase in diabetes.
Tests in the new study done with a “hydrophilic” statin, in this case pravastatin, did not cause reduced levels of GLUT4. Pravastatin is also available as a generic drug.
“The concern about increasing levels of diabetes is important,” Ito said. “We need to better understand why this is happening. There’s no doubt that statins can reduce cardiovascular events, from 25-45 percent, and are very valuable drugs in the battle against heart disease. It would be significant if it turns out that use of coenzyme Q10 can help offset the concerns about statin use and diabetes.”
Before that conclusion can be reached, the researchers said, additional studies are needed on coenzyme Q10 supplementation and the pathogenesis of statin-induced diabetes.
FOLSOM, Calif., Feb. 27, 2013 /PRNewswire/ — Recent research published online by the Journal of Nutrition, found an inverse relationship between walnut consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in two large prospective cohorts of U.S. women: the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and NHS II. The researchers from the Harvard School of Public Health followed 58,063 women (52–77 years) in NHS (1998–2008) and 79,893 women (35–52 years) in NHS II (1999–2009) without diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer at baseline. They found two or more servings (1 serving= 28 grams) of walnuts per week to be associated with a 21% and 15% lower risk of incident type 2 diabetes before and after adjusting for body mass index (BMI) respectively.
Diabetes is estimated to affect 12.6 million women in the United States and 366 million people worldwide, and the numbers are expected to rise to approximately 552 million globally by 2030. Diet and lifestyle modifications are key components in fighting this epidemic, and recent evidence suggests that the type of fat rather than total fat intake plays an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Specifically, a higher level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), found significantly in walnuts, has been associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes.
“The findings here- the kind often seen with powerful pharmaceuticals- are robust, and remarkable.”
Compared with other nuts, which typically contain a high amount of monounsaturated fats, walnuts are unique because they are rich in PUFAs which may favorably influence insulin resistance and risk of type 2 diabetes. Walnuts are different among nuts specifically in that they are uniquely comprised primarily of PUFAs and are the only nut with a significant amount of alpha-linolenic acid – the plant-based omega-3 fatty acid (2.5 grams of ALA per 1 ounce/ 28 gram serving).
Diabetes and obesity expert David Katz, MD considers walnuts to be a nutritious ingredient that should be a staple in the American diet. “Observational studies can’t prove cause and effect, but when associations are seen in large populations, and occur in a well established context- cause and effect may reliably be inferred,” states Dr. Katz. He continues, “The findings here- the kind often seen with powerful pharmaceuticals- are robust, and remarkable. They strongly indicate the importance of consuming whole foods, such as walnuts, in the fight against diabetes.”
Registered dietitian and certified diabetes educator Andrea Dunn believes this new research is good news especially considering walnuts are tasty and simple to include daily. “In this study two or more servings of walnuts per week seemed to make a difference and is so easy to incorporate,” says Dunn. She suggests adding walnuts to your morning oatmeal or yogurt, grabbing a handful as an afternoon snack or trying them as a coating for fish or as a topping to your vegetable stir-fry.
We’ll no doubt be seeing lots more recipes with walnuts after the latest news about the Mediterranean diet which features walnuts among other great foods.
For more industry information, health research and recipe ideas, visit www.walnuts.org
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About California Walnuts:
The California walnut industry is made up of more than 4,000 growers and more than 80 handlers. The growers and handlers are represented by two entities, the California Walnut Board (CWB) and the California Walnut Commission (CWC).
California Walnut Commission
The California Walnut Commission, established in 1987, is funded by mandatory assessments of the growers. The Commission is an agency of the State of California that works in concurrence with the Secretary of the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA). The CWC is mainly involved in health research and export market development activities.
Researchers reported that the traditional Mediterranean diet of fruit, vegetables, olive oil and fish, reduced diabetes risk by 83 percent. University of Navarra researchers in Pamplona, Spain, the country of endless eating pleasures, found that over four years of monitoring food items and dietary habits of 13,380 graduates with no history of diabetes, that only 33 new cases of diabetes were documented.
On a ten point scale of Mediterranean diet adherence, (0-2 for low adherence, 3-6 medium and 7-9 for high adherence), researchers discovered that each two point increase on the adherence scale had a corresponding 35% reduction in diabetes risk.
All that just from eating real food. Who would have figured.