From the Harvard Gazette:
Research Also Shows People Who Eat Nuts Weigh Less
According to the largest study of its kind, people who ate a daily handful of nuts were 20 percent less likely to die from any cause over a 30-year period than those who didn’t consume nuts, say scientists from the Harvard-affiliated Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, and the Harvard School of Public Health.
Their report, published in the New England Journal of Medicine,contains further good news: The regular nut-eaters were found to be more slender than those who didn’t eat nuts, a finding that should alleviate fears that eating a lot of nuts will lead to overweight.
The report also looked at the protective effect on specific causes of death.
“The most obvious benefit was a reduction of 29 percent in deaths from heart disease — the major killer of people in America,” said Charles S. Fuchs, director of the Gastrointestinal Cancer Treatment Center at Dana-Farber, who is the senior author of the report and a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School.
“But we also saw a significant reduction — 11 percent — in the risk of dying from cancer,” added Fuchs, who is also affiliated with the Channing Division of Network Medicine at Brigham and Women’s.
Whether any specific type or types of nuts were crucial to the protective effect could not be determined. However, the reduction in mortality was similar both for peanuts (a legume, or ground nut) and for tree nuts — walnuts, hazelnuts, almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, macadamias, pecans, pistachios, and pine nuts.
Several previous studies had found an association between increasing nut consumption and a lower risk of diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, colon cancer, gallstones, and diverticulitis. Higher nut consumption also has been linked to reductions in cholesterol levels, oxidative stress, inflammation, adiposity, and insulin resistance. Some small studies have linked an increase of nuts in the diet to lower total mortality in specific populations. But no previous research studies had looked in such detail at various levels of nut consumption and their effects on overall mortality in a large population that was followed for more than 30 years.
For the new research, the scientists were able to tap databases from two well-known, ongoing observational studies that collect data on diet and other lifestyle factors and various health outcomes. The Nurses’ Health Study provided data on 76,464 women between 1980 and 2010, and the Health Professionals’ Follow-Up Study yielded data on 42,498 men from 1986 to 2010. Participants in the studies filled out detailed food questionnaires every two to four years. With each questionnaire, participants were asked to estimate how often they consumed nuts in a serving size of one ounce. A typical small packet of peanuts from a vending machine contains one ounce.
Sophisticated data analysis methods were used to rule out other factors that might have accounted for the mortality benefits. For example, the researchers found that individuals who ate more nuts were leaner, less likely to smoke, and more likely to exercise, use multivitamin supplements, consume more fruits and vegetables, and drink more alcohol. However, analysis was able to isolate the association between nuts and mortality independently of these other factors.
“In all these analyses, the more nuts people ate, the less likely they were to die over the 30-year follow-up period,” explained Ying Bao of Brigham and Women’s Hospital, first author of the report. Those who ate nuts less than once a week had a 7 percent reduction in mortality; once a week, 11 percent reduction; two to four times per week, 13 percent reduction; five to six times per week, 15 percent reduction; and seven or more times a week, a 20 percent reduction in death rate.
The authors noted that this large study cannot definitively prove cause and effect; nonetheless, the findings are strongly consistent with “a wealth of existing observational and clinical trial data to support health benefits of nut consumption on many chronic diseases.” In fact, based on previous studies, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration concluded in 2003 that eating 1½ ounces per day of most nuts “may reduce the risk of heart disease.”
The study was supported by National Institutes of Health and a research grant from the International Tree Nut Council Nutrition Research & Education Foundation.
Nuts For Nutrition
Nut Butter Primer
Roasted red peppers, mini crab cakes and Brazil nuts can all help to increase fertility. They will all feature in a special Fertility Buffet, laid on by Dr Margaret Rayman, Director of the MSc Course in Nutritional Medicine at the University of Surrey, on 3 July 2003.
A good, balanced diet rich in fruit and vegetables (at least five portions a day) and protein sources such as meat, poultry and fish, is necessary to optimise fertility.
Meat is a good source of animal protein and important minerals such as iron and zinc, the latter being especially important for fertility. “Oysters are by far the best source of zinc, but they are not included in this meal, as they are out of season,” Dr Rayman explained. “Fatty fish is a very good source of n-3 fatty acids, which are important in the development of the fetus’ brain and vision.”
To give yourself the best chance of conceiving, alcohol and smoking should be avoided. This applies to both men and women, as there is evidence that sperm damage through smoking can predispose to cancer in the offspring.
All the dishes on the buffet were carefully selected by Vicky Chudleigh, State Registered Dietician from Addenbrookes Hospital in Cambridge.
“The sunflower, pumpkin and sesame seed bread contains vitamin E, which is claimed to be an aphrodisiac because of its effects on boosting circulation. It is also an antioxidant and needed for fertility,” Vicky explained.
“Brazil nuts and mini crab cakes are both excellent sources of selenium and required for sperm motility. Without adequate selenium, sperm tails kink and break off. Selenium also minimises the risk of miscarriages.”
Roasted red peppers, tomatoes, pesto (containing basil) and of course, chocolate mousse, were all selected for their reputed aphrodisiac qualities.
Spinach, together with other dark green leafy vegetables, provide the folate required to reduce the risk of neural tube defect in the developing baby. The cheese platter not only contains calcium and zinc, but also vitamin A, which aids the production of sex hormones. They are all needed for healthy reproduction and libido.
The fertility buffet will not only be a gastronomic experience, but also forms part of the module, Pregnancy, Infancy & Childbirth in the Nutritional Medicine course, aimed at doctors. But there will be no retiring to the drawing room after dinner, as the doctors on the course will need to complete an assignment on dietary advice to give to their patients.
5 nutritious varieties & recipe ideas
February 27, 2013
For decades, consumers shunned the nut section of grocery stores, scared off by nuts’ high calorie and fat content. But ongoing research has revealed the truth about them. While nuts are high in fats, many of them contain good fats — the kind that actually help your body — in addition to a plentiful selection of vitamins and minerals.
So next time you find yourself heading for the chip aisle, stop in the nut section instead and pick up some of nature’s most versatile treats. Here, we showcase five healthy nut varieties we love.
An all-star nut, almonds offer a host of health benefits. Their potent combination of monounsaturated fats, vitamin E and magnesium lowers bad cholesterol, reduces the risk of heart disease and improves the flow of blood and oxygen throughout the body. Eat ‘em whole with the skins on for maximum effect.
Recipe riff: Incorporate chopped almonds (as well as other nuts of choice) when making homemade granola.
We’re going to overlook the fact that this misnamed food is actually a seed, not a nut. But like many nuts, pine nuts are high in heart-healthy fats, potassium and vitamin E. They’re also loaded with protein — some varieties clock in at 34% protein. As an added bonus, pine nuts serve as an appetite suppressant, making them a perfect mid-day snack.
Recipe riff: In a food processor, pulse pine nuts, olive oil, garlic, basil leaves and cheese to make a yummy basil pesto.
Research positions walnuts as the Holy Grail of nuts. They’re bursting with nutrients — including omega-3 fatty acids, copper, potassium, calcium and magnesium — and have been linked to lower cholesterol, healthy blood pressure, bone stability and reduced risk of cancer. You’ll benefit most from a walnut’s nutrients if you leave the skin on.
Recipe riff: Toast shelled walnuts; then combine with arugula, pears and your dressing of choice for a healthy, delicious salad.
These exotically named nuts hail from the Amazon, and like their more well-known counterparts, contain high levels of good fats, vitamin E and other nutrients. Brazil nuts also boast selenium, which can help prevent cancer, cirrhosis of the liver and coronary artery disease.
Recipe riff: Combine raw Brazil nuts, olive oil and a dash of salt; then roast in the oven for an easy snack.
Packed with antioxidants, these little green guys are known to reduce bad cholesterol and support heart health. Not to mention, they’re fun to shell and munch on for an afternoon treat.
Recipe riff: Combine finely chopped pistachios with panko to make a crust for baked salmon.