The Role Of Fatty Acids In Insulin Resistance

The Fats Of Life Nutrition News Cover

The Role Of Fatty Acids In Insulin Resistance

New research into insulin resistance reveals that not all organs and receptor sites react in the same ways. This further complicates the problem. How do we ensure optimal levels are achieved and maintained?

This new research by Barry Sears Email author  and Mary Perry peels away another secret of the body’s endless complexity.

The human body has developed an extraordinary number of systems to maintain stable blood glucose and to avoid broad swings in its level. These systems include hormones that are directly or indirectly generated by the diet.

These hormones sense dietary nutrients and send appropriate neural signals to the brain (specifically the hypothalamus) to orchestrate fuel usage for either oxidation into energy or long-term storage. The central hormone involved in this metabolic communication system is insulin.

Insulin resistance is a multi-faceted disruption of the communication between insulin and the interior of a target cell. The underlying cause of insulin resistance appears to be inflammation that can either be increased or decreased by the fatty acid composition of the diet. However, the molecular basis for insulin resistance can be quite different in various organs.
→  Read full article

Toddlers Taking Vitamin D Have Less Body Fat

Nutrition News Vitamin D Comver

The new study confirmed the importance for the development of strong bones of a vitamin D supplement of 400 IU/day during a baby’s first year.

Less Body Fat For Toddlers Taking Vitamin D

02/05/2016 14:52 GMT McGill University

A healthy intake of vitamin D in the first year of life appears to set children up to have more muscle mass and less body fat as toddlers, according to a new study published in the journal Pediatric Obesity.

The findings emerged from research initially aimed at confirming the importance of vitamin D for bone density. The additional benefit in terms of body composition came as a surprise for the research team.
→  Read full article,

http://www.mcgill.ca/newsroom/channels/news/less-body-fat-toddlers-taking-vitamin-d-260693

Further analysis also indicated a correlation between lean muscle mass and the average level of vitamin D in the body over the first three years of a child’s life.

The only other factor found to make a significant difference to the children’s amount of body fat was their level of physical activity.

China Pays Price For Western Lifestyle With Soaring Childhood Obesity

Chinese beach scene with McDonald's shade umbrellas covering the beach

The prevalence of overweight and obesity is rising faster in children than (7 to 12 years) than adolescents (13 to 18 years),

China is paying the price of adopting a western lifestyle with soaring childhood obesity, shows a 29 year study in nearly 28 000 children and adolescents published today in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology.1 Less than 1% of children and adolescents were obese in 1985 compared to 17% of boys and 9% of girls in 2014. The authors speculate that boys may be fatter than girls because of a societal preference for sons.

“This is extremely worrying,” said Professor Joep Perk, cardiovascular prevention spokesperson for the European Society of Cardiology. “It is the worst explosion of childhood and adolescent obesity that I have ever seen. The study is large and well run, and cannot be ignored. China is set for an escalation of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and the popularity of the western lifestyle will cost lives.”

Data for the study was obtained from six national surveys in schoolchildren carried out by the Department of Education in Shandong Province, China, between 1985 and 2014. A total of 27 840 rural students aged 7 to 18 years had their height and weight measured. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as kg/m2. Overweight and obesity were defined using cut-off points recommended by the Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC), the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF), and the World Health Organization (WHO).

The prevalence of overweight and obesity in boys increased from 0.74% and 0.03% in 1985 to 16.35% and 17.20% in 2014, and in girls increased from 1.45% and 0.12% in 1985 to 13.91% and 9.11% in 2014, respectively.

“China is a large agricultural country and our findings have huge implications for the entire nation,” said Dr Ying-Xiu Zhang, leader of the investigation team at the Shandong Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Shandong University Institute of Preventive Medicine, Jinan, Shandong, China. “The rises in overweight and obesity coincide with increasing incomes in rural households and we expect this trend to continue in the coming decades in Shandong Province and other regions of China.”

“China has experienced rapid socioeconomic and nutritional changes in the past 30 years,” continued Dr Zhang. “In China today, people eat more and are less physically active than they were in the past. The traditional Chinese diet has shifted towards one that is high in fat and calories and low in fibre.”

The authors speculated that boys are fatter than girls because they are given preferential treatment. The Chinese 2005 National Youth Risk Behaviour Surveillance reported that 4.3% of boys and 2.7% of girls frequently had soft drinks, while 12.7% of boys and 4.3% of girls spent more than two hours per day playing computer games.

Dr Zhang said: “Traditionally the societal preference, particularly in rural areas, has been for sons. That could result in boys enjoying more of the family’s resources. In addition, boys may prefer to have a larger body size than girls.”

“Computer games themselves are not the issue,” added Professor Perk. “The problem is that kids sit there with a two litre bottle of fizzy drink. To burn those calories they would need to walk 46 km but they don’t.”

The prevalence of overweight and obesity is rising faster in children than (7 to 12 years) than adolescents (13 to 18 years), which the authors say could be because teenagers are more concerned about their appearance. “Adolescents generally pay more attention to their body shape and do more exercise than children,” said Dr Zhang.

“Rural areas of China have been largely ignored in strategies to reduce childhood obesity,” said Dr Zhang. “This is a wake-up call for policymakers that rural China should not be neglected in obesity interventions.

We need to educate children on healthy eating and physical activity, and monitor their weight to check if these efforts are making a difference.”

Professor Perk said: “This calls for a catastrophe committee in China to stop the alarming rise in childhood and adolescent obesity. They need to return to their former nutritional habits instead of eating junk food. Parents must take some responsibility and point their children in the direction of healthier choices.”

Curb Cravings, Feel Full With Spinach Extract

As if we needed another reason to believe that food is good medicine, it turns out spinach extract has lots of powerful effects on blood sugar, satiety, and cravings. You’re probably wondering when we’re going to see a similar study about chocolate or wine. Just remember, drinks and desert do not make a meal. Add some spinach and at the very least, you’ll be on the right track .

Spinach Extract Curbs Cravings, Feel Full

Spinach Leaf Extract Found to Suppress Appetite, Increase Meal Satisfaction

Study Published in Journal of the American College of Nutrition

August 5, 2015, CLEARWATER, FL––The nutritional value of spinach is well documented. The vegetable is rich in crucial vitamins A, C, E, and this versatile food that can be sauteed, used as the foundation for a salad, or be an essential ingredient in a festive party dip.

A key element of spinach is thylakoids, a photosynthetic membrane of chloroplasts. In a new study Thylakoid In Photosynthetic Cell Membrane(http://bit.ly/1Da1ONr), a team of medical and nutritional researchers measured subjective satiety (the feeling of being full after eating) ratings and food intake after a single dose of thylakoids from a patented spinach leaf extract, and measured them against participants who consumed a placebo.

They found that a single supplement of five grams of the extract increased satiety measured subjectively over two hours. Adding the extract to the diet may influence food cravings by acting on the brain’s reward system thereby offering a unique way to address the issue of weight gain in a manner that is convenient for the public.

The Study

Super FoodsThe study, “Acute Effects of a Spinach Extract Rich in Thylakoids on Satiety: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial,” is published online in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition.

Sixty overweight volunteers (30 male and 30 female) were enrolled in a double-blind randomized crossover study who consumed the spinach extract or placebo in random order for at least a week apart. The spinach extract was mixed with standard beverages but not with the placebo.

Hunger, fullness, desire to eat, satisfaction, thirst and an appetite for sweet, salty and savory foods were assessed. Blood was drawn to assess baseline fats and sugars before a standard breakfast meal, which was followed four hours later by a five gram dose of the spinach extract and a standard lunch. Other measurements were taken to assess appetite satisfaction before lunch and at regular intervals until a dinner was served four hours later.

Findings

Popeye The Sailor Eating His SpinachThe researchers found that when compared to a placebo, a single dose of five grams of thylakoids increased appetite satisfaction measured subjectively over two hours. That satisfaction was accompanied by a greater increase in the after-dinner blood sugar response.

The spinach extract contained concentrated thylakoids extracted from spinach leaves. By interacting with fats and retarding fat digestion, thylakoids membranes are believed to promote the release of satiety hormones and reduce the hunger-stimulating hormone ghrelin. This may lead to a release of a mechanism for increasing appetite suppression.

The study also suggests that thylakoids supplementation may influence food cravings by acting on the reward system of the brain. “As obesity remains a critical impediment to good health for millions of Americans, these findings might offer one solution to over-eating, a critical cause of unwanted weight gain,” according to the authors. “Reducing the desire for salt may be particularly helpful for those with high blood pressure,” they add.

Research Team
The research team was composed of Candida J. Rebello, Robbie Beyl and Frank L. Greenway, all of the Pennington Biomedical Research Center, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, La.; Jessica Chu, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, New Orleans, La.; Dan Edwall, Greenleaf Medical AB, Stockholm, Sweden; and Charlotte Erlanson-Albertsson, Department of Experimental Medical Science, Appetite Regulation Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Funding
The study was funded in part by a grant from Greenleaf Medical AB, Stockholm, Sweden.

###

About the Journal of the American College of Nutrition
The Journal of the American College of Nutrition (JACN) publishes original and innovative research articles, commentaries, and other data about nutrition which is useful for researchers, physicians, and other health care professionals. The journal is published six times per year and is the flagship publication of the American College of Nutrition.

– See more at: http://www.americancollegeofnutrition.org/content/spinach-leaf-extract-found-suppress-appetite-increase-meal-satisfaction#sthash.xcoU0DWc.dpuf

Gut Bacteria Disruption In Early Life Linked To Obesity In Adulthood

Happy Face Stomach PaintingIt appears that the developing gut bacteria in newborns is even more important than previously thought. Antibiotics and other chemical toxins destroy gut bacteria. As the microbiome develops in humans it also determines how our metabolism gets established and our digestive patterns for life are formed according to a NYU research team and published in Cell.

Acquisition of the intestinal microbiota begins at birth, and a stable microbial community develops from a succession of key organisms. Disruption of the microbiota during maturation by low-dose antibiotic exposure can alter host metabolism and adiposity.

We now show that low-dose penicillin (LDP), delivered from birth, induces metabolic alterations and affects ileal expression of genes involved in immunity. LDP that is limited to early life transiently perturbs the microbiota, which is sufficient to induce sustained effects on body composition, indicating that microbiota interactions in infancy may be critical determinants of long-term host metabolic effects.

In addition, LDP enhances the effect of high-fat diet induced obesity. The growth promotion phenotype is transferrable to germ-free hosts by LDP-selected microbiota, showing that the altered microbiota, not antibiotics per se, play a causal role. These studies characterize important variables in early-life microbe-host metabolic interaction and identify several taxa consistently linked with metabolic alterations.

For further reading:

Altering the Intestinal Microbiota during a Critical Developmental Window Has Lasting Metabolic Consequences
Cox, Laura M; Yamanishi, Shingo; Sohn, Jiho; Alekseyenko, Alexander V; Leung, Jacqueline M; Cho, Ilseung; Kim, Sungheon G; Li, Huilin; Gao, Zhan; Mahana, Douglas; Zarate Rodriguez, Jorge G; Rogers, Arlin B; Robine, Nicolas; Loke, P’ng; Blaser, Martin J
2014 Aug;158(4):705-721, Cell
— id: 1132022, year: 2014, vol: 158, page: 705, stat: Journal Article,

Superfoods cover image

Play The Is It Healthy Game!

Read Nutrition News

Making Healthy Choices Easier Than You Think

You have Successfully Subscribed!