The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology:
Close to half (40%) of the adult population of the USA is expected to develop type 2 diabetes at some point during their lifetime, suggests a major study published in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology. The future looks even worse for some ethnic minority groups, with one in two (> 50%) Hispanic men and women and non-Hispanic black women predicted to develop the disease.
A team of US researchers combined data from nationally representative US population interviews and death certificates for about 600 000 adults to estimate trends in the lifetime risk of diabetes and years of life lost to diabetes in the USA between 1985 and 2011.
Over the 26 years of study, the lifetime risk of developing type 2 diabetes for the average American 20-year-old rose from 20% for men and 27% for women in 1985–1989, to 40% for men and 39% for women in 2000–2011. The largest increases were in Hispanic men and women, and non-Hispanic black women, for whom lifetime risk now exceeds 50%.
Dr Edward Gregg, study leader and Chief of the Epidemiology and Statistics Branch, Division of Diabetes Translation at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said, “Soaring rates of diabetes since the late 1980s and longer overall life expectancy in the general population have been the main drivers of the striking increase in the lifetime risk of diabetes over the last 26 years. At the same time, a large reduction in death rates in the US population with diabetes has reduced the average number of years lost to the disease. However, the overwhelming increase in diabetes prevalence has resulted in an almost 50% increase in the cumulative number of years of life lost to diabetes for the population as a whole: years spent living with diabetes have increased by 156% in men and 70% in women.”*
He concludes, “As the number of diabetes cases continue to increase and patients live longer there will be a growing demand for health services and extensive costs. More effective lifestyle interventions are urgently needed to reduce the number of new cases in the USA and other developed nations.”*
Writing in a linked Comment, Dr Lorraine Lipscombe from Women’s College Hospital and the University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada says, “The trends reported by Gregg and colleagues are probably similar across the developed world, where large increases in diabetes prevalence in the past two decades have been reported…Primary prevention strategies are urgently needed. Excellent evidence has shown that diabetes can be prevented with lifestyle changes. However, provision of these interventions on an individual basis might not be sustainable. Only a population-based approach to prevention can address a problem of this magnitude. Prevention strategies should include optimisation of urban planning, food-marketing policies, and work and school environments that enable individuals to make healthier lifestyle choices. With an increased focus on interventions aimed at children and their families, there might still be time to change the fate of our future generations by lowering their risk of type 2 diabetes.”
*Quotes direct from author and cannot be found in text of Article.
In a study published July 30, 2014 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0103376 indicates the wisdom of eating more nuts. In fact, eating more nuts is just the ticket. You don’t even have to take me out the ballpark. The jury is in so go nuts.
The ability of tree nuts to improve glycemic control may relate to a carbohydrate displacement mechanism by which tree nuts reduce the glycemic load of the diet by displacing high glycemic-index carbohydrates. And they taste better than hi fructose carb snacks. read more: Effect of Tree Nuts on Glycemic Control in Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Dietary Trials
Tree nuts are the perfect workplace snack. Not only do they taste good, they also help reduce work-related stress, a risk factor for type 2 diabetes.
Workplace stress can have a range of adverse effects on health with an increased risk of cardio-vascular diseases in the first line.
Risk of diabetes about 45 percent higher.
Individuals who are under a high level of pressure at work and at the same time perceive little control over the activities they perform face an about 45 percent higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes than those who are subjected to less stress at their workplace.
Individuals who increased their daily consumption of coffee by more than a cup over time had an 11% reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared with people whose consumption stayed the same, according to a study in the journal Diabetologia. Individuals who reduced their coffee intake by more than a cup a day had a 17% higher risk of diabetes.
Need an excuse to drink yet another cup of coffee today? A new study suggests that increasing coffee consumption may decrease the risk for type 2 diabetes.
The apparent relationship between coffee and type 2 diabetes is not new. Previous studies have found that drinking a few cups or more each day may lower your risk – with each subsequent cup nudging up the benefit.
This most recent study, published in the journal Diabetologia, was more concerned with how changing coffee consumption – either increasing it or decreasing it over time – might affect your risk.
The conclusion: People who upped their consumption by more than a cup per day had an 11% lower risk of type 2 diabetes compared with people whose consumption held steady. Decreasing coffee consumption by the same amount – more than a cup a day – was associated with a 17% increased risk of type 2 diabetes.
The data is based on an analysis of more than 120,000 health professionals already being followed observationally long term. Researchers looked at the study participants’ coffee drinking habits across four years to reach their conclusions.
Just how much coffee each day provides a benefit?
“For type 2 diabetes, up to six cups per day is associated with lower risk,” said Shilpa Bhupathiraju, a research fellow at the Harvard School of Public Health and lead study author, citing previous research. “As long as coffee doesn’t give you tremors, doesn’t make you jittery, it is associated with a lot of health benefits.”
In the case of diabetes, the reasons behind the supposed protection conferred by coffee are not clear, but there are theories based on animal research.
One involves chemicals present in coffee – phenolic compounds and lignans – that may improve glucose metabolism, according to Bhupathiraju. She added that coffee is rich in magnesium, which is also associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes.
Coffee drinking linked to longer life
Wait, though. Before you scramble out to purchase your fourth latte of the day, it is important to note that the type of coffee matters.
Lattes and other types of specialty drinks – often laden with sugar – were not studied. The type of coffee involved in this study tended to be a simple eight-ounce cup of black coffee containing about 100 milligrams of caffeine.
“People think of (increasing their intake) as going and drinking an extra blended drink,” said Bhupathiraju. “We are not talking about ‘frappuchinos’ or lattes. It’s black coffee with milk and sugar.”
Coffee good for you, but it’s OK to hold back
And while coffee may be associated with a reduction in some chronic diseases (not just diabetes, but cardiovascular disease, certain cancers, and – according to a New England Journal of Medicine study – with a longer life, overall) scientists are still reluctant to call coffee a panacea.
That doesn’t mean you can’t enjoy one more cup in the meantime.