Cannibus Could Prove Effective For Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

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Cannibus Could Prove Effective For Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

Chemicals found in cannabis could prove an effective treatment for the inflammatory bowel diseases Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease, say scientists.

Laboratory tests have shown that two compounds found in the cannabis plant. the cannabinoids THC and cannabidiol, interact with the body’s system that controls gut function.

Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis, which affect about one in every 250 people in Northern Europe, are caused by both genetic and environmental factors. The researchers believe that a genetic susceptibility coupled with other triggers, such as diet, stress or bacterial imbalance, leads to a defective immune response.

Dr Karen Wright, Peel Trust Lecturer in Biomedicine at Lancaster University,  presented her findings in the soon-to-be published work at The British Pharmacological Society‘s Winter Meeting in London.

She said: “The lining of the intestines provides a barrier against the contents of the gut but in people with Crohn’s Disease this barrier leaks and bacteria can escape into the intestinal tissue leading to an inappropriate immune response.

“If we could find a way to restore barrier integrity in patients, we may be able to curb the inflammatory immune response that causes these chronic conditions.”

Dr Wright, working with colleagues at the School of Graduate Entry Medicine and Health in Derby, has shown that cells that react to cannabinoid compounds play an important role in normal gut function as well as the immune system’s inflammatory response.

“The body produces its own cannabinoid molecules, called endocannabinoids, which we have shown increase the permeability of the epithelium during inflammation, implying that overproduction may be detrimental,” said Dr Wright.

“However, we were able to reverse this process using plant-derived cannabinoids, which appeared to allow the epithelial cells to form tighter bonds with each other and restore the membrane barrier.”

The research was carried out using cell cultures in a dish but, interestingly, when the team attempted to mimic the conditions of the gut by reducing the amount of oxygen in the cells’ environment, much lower concentrations of cannabinoid were needed to produce the same effect.

Dr Wright added: “What is also encouraging is that while THC has psychoactive properties and is responsible for the ˜high” people experience when using cannabis, cannabidiol, which has also proved effective in restoring membrane integrity, does not possess such properties.”

Read the full journal article.

Bibliography: http://www.research.lancs.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/the-role-of-cb1-in-intestinal-permeability-and-inflammation(d9f9ae9e-0485-4ca0-ba16-41434e682704).html

 

 

Harnessing Gut Bacteria For Human Health

Bugs as Drugs: Harnessing Novel Gut Bacteria for Human Health

03/05/2016 10:33 GMT  Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute

Scientists at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute have grown and catalogued more than 130 bacteria from the human intestine.

Imbalances in our gut microbiome can contribute to complex conditions and diseases such as obesity, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Irritable Bowel Syndrome and allergies.

Published in Nature, this research will enable scientists to understand how our bacterial ‘microbiome’ helps keep us healthy and start to create tailor-made treatments with specific beneficial bacteria.

→  Read full article

Full bibliographic information

Hilary P. Browne et al. (2016). Culturing of ‘unculturable’ human microbiota reveals novel taxa and extensive sporulation. Nature. DOI: 10.1038/nature17645

 

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Exercise Causes Epigenetic Changes To Fat Cells

A Comprehensive Map of AncestryDNA Ethnicity Regions

Altered DNA methylation as a result of physical activity could be one of the mechanisms of how these genes affect the risk of disease.

 

Exercise, even in small doses, changes the expression of our innate DNA. New research from Lund University in Sweden has described for the first time what happens on an epigenetic level in fat cells when we undertake physical activity.

“Our study shows the positive effects of exercise, because the epigenetic pattern of genes that affect fat storage in the body changes”, says Charlotte Ling, Associate Professor at Lund University Diabetes Centre.

The cells of the body contain DNA, which contains genes. We inherit our genes and they cannot be changed. The genes, however, have ‘methyl groups’ attached which affect what is known as ‘gene expression’ – whether the genes are activated or deactivated. The methyl groups can be influenced in various ways, through exercise, diet and lifestyle, in a process known as ‘DNA methylation’. This is epigenetics, a relatively new research field that in recent years has attracted more and more attention.

In the study, the researchers investigated what happened to the methyl groups in the fat cells of 23 slightly overweight, healthy men aged around 35 who had not previously engaged in any physical activity, when they regularly attended spinning and aerobics classes over a six-month period.

“They were supposed to attend three sessions a week, but they went on average 1.8 times”, says Tina Rönn, Associate Researcher at Lund University.

Using technology that analyses 480,000 positions throughout the genome, they could see that epigenetic changes had taken place in 7,000 genes (an individual has 20–25 000 genes). They then went on to look specifically at the methylation in genes linked to type 2 diabetes and obesity.

“We found changes in those genes too, which suggests that altered DNA methylation as a result of physical activity could be one of the mechanisms of how these genes affect the risk of disease”, says Tina Rönn, adding that this has never before been studied in fat cells and that they now have a map of the DNA methylome in fat.

In the laboratory, the researchers were able to confirm the findings in vitro (studying cell cultures in test tubes) by deactivating certain genes and thus reducing their expression. This resulted in changes in fat storage in fat cells.

 

Studies Show Vaccinated Kids Sicker Than Unvaccinated

Vaccination Stats

Childhood vaccination programs now includes forty-eight doses of vaccines for fourteen diseases

— all administered between birth and age six

— compared to three vaccinations for seven diseases in the 1970s.

 Vaccinated children were more than three times as likely to have allergies, six times as likely to have pneumonia, about three times as likely to have NDD, and almost twice as likely to have any chronic illness.

Preterm birth combined with vaccination was associated with nearly seven-fold increased odds of neurological development disorders.

BY  ON 

The first study, comparing unvaccinated and vaccinated children, looked at the link between preterm (i.e., premature) infants, vaccination, and the development of neurological development disorders (NDD) such as autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, and learning disabilities. Preterm babies are already at increased risk for NDD, but the study found that vaccinating preterm babies—which is standard medical practice—significantly increases that risk. Preterm birth combined with vaccination was associated with nearly seven-fold increased odds of NDD.Two recent studies underscore concerns that science has been abandoned in order to promote Big Pharma’s pro-vaccine agenda. Action Alert!

That’s not all. The second study, which surveyed more than 400 homeschooling mothers with 666 children (39% of whom were unvaccinated), found even more causes for concern. It found that vaccinated kids were, on the whole, sicker than unvaccinated kids. Vaccinated children were more than three times as likely to have allergies, six times as likely to have pneumonia, about three times as likely to have NDD, and almost twice as likely to have any chronic illness.

Additionally, the study also found that vaccinated kids were far more likely to use medications and other health services. They were more likely to have been prescribed antibiotics, allergy drugs, and fever medications; fitted with ventilation ear tubes; visited a doctor in the previous year for a health issue; and been hospitalized. Readers can consult the study for the specific numbers, but we can extrapolate that the healthcare costs of vaccinated children are at least twice that of unvaccinated children—not counting the real costs of caring for children with NDD and chronically sick children for a lifetime.

Like any study, these papers have limitations. The sample size (666 children) is relatively small, and self-reporting surveys can be unreliable. These findings indicate that larger studies comparing the health outcomes of vaccinated and unvaccinated kids should be done.

As the authors note, this is not a radical view: the National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine), which advises the federal government on health issues, has recommended further study of vaccines. The Academy specifically recommends focusing on the health outcomes of both vaccinated and unvaccinated children, the long-term cumulative effects of vaccines, the timing of vaccinations in relation to the child’s age, the total number of vaccines given, the total number of vaccines given at one time, and the effect of vaccine adjuvants.

It is shocking that such studies have never been done, considering that the childhood vaccination program now includes forty-eight doses of vaccines for fourteen diseases—all administered between birth and age six—compared to three vaccinations for seven diseases in the 1970s. If those who wish to force vaccinations on the US population are so confident that vaccines are safe, why not do the studies?

The likely answer: Big Pharma makes Big Money from pumping the most vulnerable among us full of vaccines.

Science is about examining all the currently available evidence dispassionately before reaching a conclusion—and that conclusion is always open to further evidence or analysis. Sadly, those claiming the mantle of “science” in the vaccine debate are actually rejecting science.

The question is not just whether we vaccinate, but rather how and when we do so. The biggest questions concern the use of adjuvants such as aluminum, which we are injecting right into our bodies where the liver cannot protect us; the use of preservatives; and the appropriateness of the schedule of shots. We need an honest, fact-based discussion of these topics.

Action Alert! Write to the FDA and tell them that they must study the long term effects of vaccination. Please send your message immediately!

Editor’s note (5/9/2017):Within hours of publishing this article, we learned of reports that the Journal of Translational Science has retracted these studies. We will keep you updated as we work to confirm these reports and discern the reason for the retraction. It wouldn’t surprise us if special interests are behind this, since industry has used its clout to exert pressure on scientific journals in the past. 

Update (5/18/2017): We can now confirm that the studies have not been retracted, and are back online.

Blue Eyed Humans Have Common Ancestor

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Variation in the color of the eyes from brown to green can all be explained by the amount of melanin in the iris. Blue-eyed individuals only have a small degree of variation in the amount of melanin in their eyes.

Nature is constantly shuffling the human genome, creating a genetic cocktail of human chromosomes and trying out different changes as it does so

A genetic mutation 6,000-10,000 years ago is the cause of the eye color of all blue-eyed humans alive on the planet today.

University of Copenhagen

New research shows that people with blue eyes have a single, common ancestor. Scientists have tracked down a genetic mutation which took place 6,000-10,000 years ago and is the cause of the eye color of all blue-eyed humans alive on the planet today.

What is the genetic mutation

“Originally, we all had brown eyes,” said Professor Hans Eiberg from the Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine. “But a genetic mutation affecting the OCA2 gene in our chromosomes resulted in the creation of a “switch,” which literally “turned off” the ability to produce brown eyes.”

The OCA2 gene codes for the so-called P protein, which is involved in the production of melanin, the pigment that gives colour to our hair, eyes and skin. The “switch,” which is located in the gene adjacent to OCA2 does not, however, turn off the gene entirely, but rather limits its action to reducing the production of melanin in the iris — effectively “diluting” brown eyes to blue. The switch’s effect on OCA2 is very specific therefore. If the OCA2 gene had been completely destroyed or turned off, human beings would be without melanin in their hair, eyes or skin colour — a condition known as albinism.

Limited genetic variation

Variation in the colour of the eyes from brown to green can all be explained by the amount of melanin in the iris, but blue-eyed individuals only have a small degree of variation in the amount of melanin in their eyes. “From this we can conclude that all blue-eyed individuals are linked to the same ancestor,” says Professor Eiberg. “They have all inherited the same switch at exactly the same spot in their DNA.” Brown-eyed individuals, by contrast, have considerable individual variation in the area of their DNA that controls melanin production.

Professor Eiberg and his team examined mitochondrial DNA and compared the eye colour of blue-eyed individuals in countries as diverse as Jordan, Denmark and Turkey. His findings are the latest in a decade of genetic research, which began in 1996, when Professor Eiberg first implicated the OCA2 gene as being responsible for eye colour.

Nature shuffles our genes

The mutation of brown eyes to blue represents neither a positive nor a negative mutation. It is one of several mutations such as hair colour, baldness, freckles and beauty spots, which neither increases nor reduces a human’s chance of survival. As Professor Eiberg says, “it simply shows that nature is constantly shuffling the human genome, creating a genetic cocktail of human chromosomes and trying out different changes as it does so.”

Story Source:

Materials provided by University of Copenhagen

Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Hans Eiberg, Jesper Troelsen, Mette Nielsen, Annemette Mikkelsen, Jonas Mengel-From, Klaus W. Kjaer, Lars Hansen. Blue eye color in humans may be caused by a perfectly associated founder mutation in a regulatory element located within the HERC2 gene inhibiting OCA2 expressionHuman Genetics, 2008; 123 (2): 177 DOI: 10.1007/s00439-007-0460-x

→  Read full article

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