ADHD, Substance Abuse, Conduct Disorder Share Same Neurocognitive Deficits

ADHD, substance abuse and conduct disorder develop from the same neurocognitive deficits

Now that we can reverse engineer behavior deficits to neurocognitive deficits, I wonder how long will it take before we layer in the nutritional deficits and apply the same statistical rigor to that data set. Seems like low hanging fruit to me. Pun intended.

12 August 2014 Université de Montréal

Researchers at the University of Montreal and CHU Sainte-Justine Research Centre have traced the origins of ADHD, Crazy Makerssubstance abuse and conduct disorder, and found that they develop from the same neurocognitive deficits, which in turn explains why they often occur together.

“Psychopathology exists on multiple continua of brain function.  Some of these dimensions contribute to a multitude of problems, others contribute to specific problems.

Together, they explain patterns of comorbidity such as why ADHD and conduct problems co-occur with substance misuse at such a high rate,” explained the study’s lead author, Professor Patricia Conrod.

“Our findings suggest that risk for externalizing problems exist on a continuum in the general population, are easily measured and can be targeted before diagnosable problems arise.

The findings also help reduce stigma and address some of the complexities when diagnosing and treating concurrent psychiatric problems.

The implications are that clinicians can manage multiple psychiatric problems by focusing on how a young person is functioning on a few key neurocognitive dimensions.  The next step is to develop evidence-based intervention strategies that will target these three areas of brain function”

The findings were established by studying the reward sensitivity and decision making patterns of 1,778 European 14-year-olds of comparable demographic profile.

The teens were asked to undertake several tasks while undergoing an MRI and answer personality questionnaires. Clinicians also profiled the participants, once at the time of the testing, and again two years later..

At age 14, 4.4% of participants were identified as having a diagnosis of conduct disorder, ADHD, or both; by 16, this figure had risen to 6.6%.

Alcohol and substance abuse were also identified, with 3.7% and 10.6% prevalence respectively at age 14, and 18.0% and 27.1% respectively at age 16.

Teen Girl Smoking With A BeerThe researchers were able to use statistical modelling to see what risk factors were linked to which psychiatric symptoms. “This is the first study to model ADHD, conduct disorder and substance use problems in adolescence by using a novel statistical approach that identifies the shared variance among these problems as well as the neurocognitive risk factors that are common across these problems.

Three key neurocognitive dimensions were identified as being implicated in most externalizing problems:

  1. impulsive action, impulsive choice (valuing immediate rewards over delayed rewards) and reward sensitivity.  A young person’s performance and brain function on each of these dimensions were shown to be related to externalizing problems.
  2. Self report impulsivity, impulsive actions on a response inhibition task and the extent to which frontal brain regions are hypoactive when committing an impulsive action differentiated youth who were most at risk for ADHD and conduct problems from youth who are at risk for all externalizing behaviours more generally.
  3. Thrill or sensation seeking and abnormal activity in frontal brain regions when anticipating rewards differentiated youth who were uniquely at risk for alcohol misuse relative to those at risk for problems generally.” explained Natalie Castellanos-Ryan, first author of the study.

“There has recently been a trend in psychiatry to reformulate diagnostic categories from a dimensional and neuroscience perspective, fueled mainly by the high rates of comorbidity between certain disorders. This is precisely what we do with regards to externalizing disorders/problems. Our findings provide support for this new “dimensional” approach to psychiatric research by showing these disorder/problems share substantial variance as well as common risk factors and that they exist along a continuum in the general population.”

Behaving Badly DVD CoverThe findings shed light on the cognitive deficits that could be targeted in order to potentially help treat comorbid cases (e.g. adolescents who have been diagnosed with both conduct disorder and substance use problems).

“Comorbid cases are harder to treat and have worse prognosis than non-comorbid cases, and currently there are very few interventions or clinical strategies that are designed to treat comorbidity,” Castellanos-Ryan said.

“Prevention and intervention approaches for externalizing problems – ADHD, conduct disorder and substance use – could benefit from incorporating training components that target the brain functions or deficits related to impulsive action, impulsive choice, and reward sensitivity.

Furthermore, these findings suggest that new intervention and prevention strategies targeting these deficits, either at the personality, cognitive or neural level, have the potential to concurrently impact on a number of clinical outcomes during adolescence and potentially before problems occur.”

Castellanos-Ryan N, Struve M, Whelan R, Banaschewski T, Barker GJ, Bokde AL, Bromberg U, Büchel C, Flor H, Fauth-Bühler M, Frouin V, Gallinat J, Gowland P, Heinz A, Lawrence C, Martinot JL, Nees F, Paus T, Pausova Z, Rietschel M, Robbins TW, Smolka MN, Schumann G, Garavan H, Conrod PJ; The IMAGEN Consortium.

  • Notes for editorsNatalie Castellanos-Ryan, PhD, and Professor Patricia Conrod, PhD, are researchers affiliated with the University of Montreal’s Department of Psychiatry and the Research Centre at the CHU Sainte-Justine Mother and Child Hospital Centre. Castellanos-Ryan is also affiliated with the university’s School of Psychoeducation.The research team published “Neural and Cognitive Correlates of the Common and Specific Variance Across Externalizing Problems in Young Adolescence” in the American Journal of Psychiatry on July 30, 2014.The research was supported by the European Union-funded FP6 Integrated Project IMAGEN (Reinforcement- Related Behaviour in Normal Brain Function and Psychopathology; LSHM-CT- 2007-037286), the FP7 project IMAGEMEND (Imaging Genetics for Mental Disorders) and the Innovative Medicine Initiative Project EU-AIMS (115300-2), the Medical Research Council Programme Grant “Developmental Pathways Into Adolescent Substance Abuse” (93558), and the Swedish funding agency FORMAS. Further support was provided by the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF grants 01GS08152 and 01EV0711), the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) Reinhart-Koselleck Award (SP 383/5-1), and DFG grants SM80/5-2, SM 80/7-1, SFB 940/1. This research was also supported by the German Ministry of Education and Research (grant 01EV0711). Natalie Castellanos-Ryan’s and Patricia Conrod’s salaries are awarded from the Fonds de Recherche du Québec–Santé.

 

Is Hemp The Next Superfood?

Hemp SeedsWhile hemp is a commonly misunderstood ingredient—no thanks to its cousin marijuana—it offers a wide variety of both health and sustainability benefits.

Though future controversies may arise related to THC content and confusion over CBD, this increasingly popular ingredient has industry experts deeming hemp the industry’s next big star. ​

This slide show was adapted from a presentation by Tom Vierhile, innovative insights director, Datamonitor Consumer, at Ingredient Marketplace 2015. The full presentation is also available to download.

 Click To View the Slideshow   It’s an extremely well done and highly
informative . You’ll be up to speed on the distinctions between hemp and marijuana and the bright future for both.

New Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research Journal

25 June 2015 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., Publishers

“…carefully prescribed medical use of marijuana may in fact be appropriate and we should follow the science as opposed to ideology on this issue,”

Mary Ann Liebert, publisher of the newly launched peer-reviewed open access journal Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, strongly supports President Obama’s statement that “…carefully prescribed medical use of marijuana may in fact be appropriate and we should follow the science as opposed to ideology on this issue,” when asked about a pending Senate bill seeking to change federal law regarding state-legalized medical marijuana programs.

Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, a fully open access journal will be the authoritative source for research, discussion, and debate. Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers (http://www.liebertpub.com/) will publish the Journal under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC BY) license to ensure broad dissemination and participation.

Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research will publish fully peer-reviewed, evidence-based original articles, review articles, and perspectives on cannabis, cannabinoids, and the endocannabinoid system.

The Journal will publish a broad range of human and animal studies including basic and translational research; clinical studies; behavioral, social, and epidemiological issues; and ethical, legal, and regulatory controversies.

An interdisciplinary community including pharmacologists and psychopharmacologists, toxicologists, biochemists, neurologists, psychiatrists, physicians, and other healthcare practitioners, addiction specialists, and regulators and policymakers are invited to participate in this new open access resource.

Topics in Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research will include: Biochemical process of the endocannabinoid system * Cannabinoid receptors and signaling

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* Analgesic effects, including neuropathic pain and chronic nerve injury

* Neurological disorders, including epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, and glaucoma * Use of cannabis as antinauseants and antispasmodics

* Immune function and chronic inflammation, including HIV * Cancer and cancer-related treatment

* Screening and assessment for marijuana misuse and addiction * Social, behavioral, and public health impact

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Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research (http://www.liebertpub.com/can) will build a central forum and repository for peer-reviewed open access papers, as more high-quality research is needed to move the field forward.

“Cannabis research and its applications for therapy will create new challenges as its promise is evaluated,” says Mary Ann Liebert, founder, President, and CEO of the company that bears her name.

“Scientists in the lab and those on the front lines of patient care now have an important new educational forum. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research (http://www.liebertpub.com/can, which is fully open access, will be the Journal of record.”

 

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